The Most Interesting Medical Cases of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Healthcare professionals regularly share new and fascinating cases to Figure 1. Here are five of the most interesting medical cases of sexually transmitted diseases causing buzz in the community.


In this case, we see medical imaging of gonococcal arthritis and large joint effusion (arrow). According to the case, “Gonococcal arthritis occurs from the hematogenous spread of neisseria gonorrhea. Compared to nongonococcal causes of septic arthritis, gonococcal arthritis is more likely to be polyarticular and have a negative culture.” 

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In this fourth most interesting case of a sexually transmitted disease, a pathology resident shared this case of “a 33-year-old female presenting with numerous, small, fungating lesions on both labia majora which were cauterized at their respective bases and submitted for biopsy … microscopic examination of H&E sections show hyperplastic papillary squamous epithelium with parakeratosis, variable koilocytotic atypia (nuclear wrinkling with perinuclear clearing).” 

The patient was diagnosed with condyloma acuminata, which, according to the resident, “is strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) … in general, this is considered the most common sexually transmitted disease.” 

What’s this patient’s prognosis?


This case of a sexually transmitted disease demonstrates how HIV can impact other conditions, like this case of psoriasis. A rheumatologist shared this case: “A 37-year-old patient with joint pain in the left knee and ankle, right wrist and distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers, also presenting painful swelling of toes of the left foot. 

“On examination, there is psoriasis on the scalp, severe scaling on the knees and hands. He also has acute anterior uveitis. Patient reports that he has always had psoriasis but that the joint involvement is recent and has been rapidly progressive. Severe disseminated psoriasis with rapidly progressive arthritis suspect HIV infection, which is confirmed by laboratory tests.” 

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This patient presented after six months “of painful lesions on tongue and palate. More recently complaining of significant dysphonia. Systemically well. Nil PMHx.” 

Additional details from the otolaryngology resident who shared the case, included: 

  • “Oral examination as above, small cervical LN palpable bilaterally. Underwent flexible naso-endoscopy revealing bilateral irregular looking cords.” 
  • “AI screen negative, awaiting HIV & Syphilis screen -Micro: awaiting swab for MC&S” 
  • “Had biopsy in Spain, report not available but patient told was no evidence of malignancy” 

What sexually transmitted disease was this patient diagnosed with? 


In this case shared by an internal medicine resident, a “29-year-old male patient comes to the consultation for presenting maculopapular-type lesions, umbilicate, painful only on palpation with mild pruritus in the penile area (body, base and pubis). On physical examination, inguinal lymph nodes with pain are palpated. The patient reports having sex with an occasional sexual partner about 15 days ago with protection (condom).” The resident also shared that the patient did not have a fever or lesions elsewhere on the body.  

Several community members commented that they’d seen similar cases of mpox (formerly monkeypox).  

In a follow up, the resident shared that the patient tested negative for syphilis and herpes, and that the final diagnosis was mpox. The patient was quarantined “and epidemiological encirclement was performed.” 

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Published April 22, 2024

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